The ethnological studies on the Bedouins, were made in order to shed light on their origins and on their cultural evolution in the time. Soon it was made out that these people did not derive, as generally expected, from farmer people who, as result of drying of the climate, or as  invasion of warrior peoples, or an epidemic of their cultivations, could lose their properties and could be forced to move into the desert.

Far from this opinion, their direct origin is from last palaeo-mesolithic hunters gatherers: turning down the job in agriculture they could practise the cattle breeding and sheep-farming choosing deliberately to live in the deserts and in the steppes free from hard worksand binding social organisations. So they adjusted to the desert regions with hard situations and a difficult life but according to their traditional principles fixed by specific rules, moving to different pastures into regions with water and self sown vegetation.

Even though lacking in material culture most of all for freedom of movement, these people showed a very rich psychological dynamism in the creation of three monotheistic religions (Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Islam) which prevailed over those of more rich and civilized people, in the invention of the alphabetical writings deriving from the need to spread information since times before the birth of the powerful Empires (Sumerian and Egyptian) in Near East.

Their world view has been studied thanks to the great quantity of the rock engravings (about more than 20.000 as yet) which point out clearly their relation with the natural world.

The many rock engravings, thanks to a veristic style, are very readable but do not permit to interpret the historical hard facts that happened in the area. Only some permitted to identify events which refer to the feat of T. E. Lawrence of Arabia and to his death that occurred in England in 1935, the news of which reached the Bedouin people fastly. It has been possible to propose a periodization of this considerable rupestrian production

In order to know these people a collection of artefacts of their material culture has been brought in Italy, and today is preserved in the National Museum of Anthropology and Ethnology of Florence. Some documentary exhibitions have been made, illustrating their spiritual world. These have been patronized by Italian Public Institutions and by the Royal Jordan House.

Traditional customs, wais in conflicts, cattle raids, defensive and offensive weapons of the past, tattoos, toys of the children, regulations rules of life and ethical human values have also been investigated in a long time by the researchers of the Italian missions. The experiences permitted to recognize a humanity which under many respects seems to be alternative to that of the western populations.

These people are very quickly settling and leaving the pastoral farming with the life in the desert: the environment which in past for the Bedouins has been their big house of which they known exactly djabals, wadis, springs and all important localities for their life, is turning out to be just a place to visit and to stop for tourists; all memories so are going lost  and will no longer be living for posterity. For this reason the members of the missions made a decision to turn to old shepherds to get back the geographical place-names: a map of the area has been realized (dedicated to King Hussein) with more than 450 names (published in Arabic and transliterated into Italian and English).

Anthropology – The family trees of three groups of Bedouins: the Al Zawaidah of Aed Deesei an the Al Zalabie of Ramm were made by a specialist in order to understand the relationships between  the different family segments. Also the blood group has been studied and the normal nutrition of the households no longer living in the desert today.



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